For more information on supported chipsets:
For more information about supported brands and models (linked also from above site):
TL;DR chipsets Ralink, Atheros, Atmel, Prism are mostly well supported. Realtek: depends on model, to be avoided: Broadcom. But do search the internet about Linux compliance before buying a specific model.
I use a Netgear A6210 (USB ID 0846:9053) which depends on firmware mediatek/mt7662u.bin. Listed here as mt76 flavor: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_open-source_wireless_drivers (this is also the most accurate list to my knowledge)
Depending on which model you pick, you will have to install the package firmware-linux-nonfree, see also first link above.